Discovered in the Unakas mountains of North Carolina (USA), but it has also been found in S. Africa, Sierra Leone, Brazil & China. The stone consists of various shades of pinks & greens with a mottled appearance. Unakite is an altered granite composed of pink orthoclase feldspar, green epidote & quartz.
Red spinels are called spinel-rubies or balas-rubies and were often confused with actual rubies in ancient times. They are usually found in various shades of red, blue, green, yellow, brown & black. A famous spinel is the Black Prince's Ruby in the British Crown Jewels. True spinel has long been found in the Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. Spinel and ruby are often found together.

 Gemstone quality diopside is found in two forms: the black star diopside and the chrome diopside (which includes chromium giving it a rich green colour). Occurrences are reported in Canada, South Africa, Russia and a wide variety of other locations. Diopside was first described about 1800 and derives its name from the Greek dis, "twise", and òpsè, "face" in reference to the two ways of orienting the vertical prism.

The natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond; these specimens are also known as "Matura diamond". It is not to be confused with cubic zirconia, a synthetic substance with a completely different chemical composition. Zircon is regarded as the traditional birthstone for December. Large specimens are appreciated as gemstones.

Morganite, also known as "Pink Beryl", Rose Beryl, "Pink Emerald", Cesian Beryl, is a light pink to rose-colored gem quality beryl, Color banding is common in morganite. By the turn of the century, J. P. Morgan (the famous financier) had become one of the most important collectors of gems and minerals and had assembled the most important gem collection in the USA as well as of American gemstones (over 1,000 pieces). Tiffany & Co. actually assembled his first collection -- which basically implied that their "chief gemologist" George Frederick Kunz built the collection for J.P. Morgan -- which was exhibited at the World's Fair in Paris in 1889. The exhibit won two golden awards and drew the attention of important scholars, lapidaries, and the general public. 
George Frederick Kunz then continued to build a second, even finer, collection, which was exhibited in Paris in 1900. Collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York, where they were known as the Morgan-Tiffany and the Morgan-Bement collections. Morganite was first discovered together with other gemstone minerals, such as Tourmaline and Kunzite, in California in the early twentieth century at Pala. This started a bonanza for these quite popular gemstones which drew the attention of George Frederick Kunz, knowing Pink Beryl was quite a rarity. It was George Frederick Kunz who, in 1911, suggested to name the pink variety of Beryl Morganite, after his biggest customer - J.P. Morgan.. Ever since, the stone has held a certain popularity with Tiffany's though it still remains a relatively scarce gem. Morganite is much rarer than other common beryls, such as aquamarine and heliodor.

Varieties of beryl have been considered gemstones since prehistoric times. Green beryl is called emerald, red beryl is bixbite or red emerald or scarlet emerald, blue beryl is aquamarine, pink beryl is morganite, colorless beryl is goshenite, and a clear bright yellow beryl is called golden beryl. The druids used beryl for scrying; while the Scottish called them “stones of power.  The earliest crystal balls were made from beryl, later being replaced by rock crystal.

Topaz can also be irradiated, turning the stone blue, ranging from a light pure color to very dark almost electric blue.

The name of the gemstone is believed to come from either the Arabic word faridat meaning "gem" or the French word peritot meaning "unclear." Peridot is one of the few gemstones that comes in only one color. The depth of green depends on how much iron is contained in the crystal structure, and varies from yellow-green to olive to brownish green. Peridot is also often referred to as "poor man's emerald". Gem-quality peridot is rather rare.

The geological type area for labradorite is Paul's Island near the town of Nain in Labrador, Canada. Gemstone varieties of labradorite exhibiting a high degree of iridescence are called spectrolite, moonstone and sunstone, and high-quality samples with good iridescent qualities are desired for jewelry. Labradorite Anadacine shares the properties of both labradorite & andacine and is much more expensive than regular labradorite

 Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz often used as an ornamental stone in jewellery. Amethyst occurs in primary hues from a light slightly-pinkish violet to a deep grape purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and/or blue. Amethyst was used as a gemstone by the ancient Egyptians.Beads of amethyst were found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England. It is a widely distributed mineral, but fine, clear specimens that are suitable for cutting as ornamental stones are confined to few localities. Amethyst is the birthstone associated with February.

Citrine, also called citrine fortz is a variety of quartz. It ranges in color from a pale yellow to brown. Brazil is the leading producer of naturally mined citrine, with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In ancient times, citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts. Citrine is one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November.

A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition, this stone is then sold as 'mystic topaz'.

Fluorite is a widely occurring mineral which is found in large deposits in many areas. Notable deposits occur in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, England, Norway, Mexico, and Ontario in Canada. One of the most famous of the older-known localities of fluorite is Castleton in Derbyshire, England, where, under the name of Derbyshire Blue John, purple-blue fluorite was extracted from several mines/caves, including the famous Blue John Cavern.

Ametrine, also known as trystine or by its trade name as bolivianite, is a naturally occurring variety of quartz. It is a mixture of amethyst and citrine with zones of purple and yellow or orange. Almost all commercially available ametrine is mined in Bolivia, although there are deposits being exploited in Brazil and India. Legend has it that ametrine was first introduced to Europe by a conquistador's gifts to the Spanish Queen, after he received the Anahi mine in Bolivia as a dowry. 

Lapis lazuli (sometimes abbreviated to lapis) is a semi-precious stone prized since antiquity for its intense blue color. Lapis lazuli has been mined in the Badakhshan province of Afghanistan for 6,500 years. The finest color is intense blue, lightly dusted with small flecks of golden pyrite. The best lapis lazuli is found in limestone in the Kokcha river valley of Badakhshan province in northeastern Afghanistan, and these deposits in the mines of Sar-e-Sang have been worked for more than 6,000 years.

Limoges is known for its medieval enamels (Limoges enamels) on copper, for its 19th century porcelain (Limoges porcelain) and for its oak barrels (Limousin oak), which are used for Cognac production.

Opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, shore, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Opals are also Australia's national gemstone. Peruvian opal (also called blue opal) is a semi-opaque to opaque blue-green stone found in Peru. Opal is the traditional birthstone of the month of October.